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1. Morris, M. and D. Fautin. 2001. "Scyphozoa" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 26, 2005 at

2. Dr. Craig S. Hood, professor of biological sciences. Loyola University, New Orleans (online)

3. Reents of the University of California. UCMP web server




8. Introduction to the Cnidarian. UCMP, Berkeley.

9. Ben Waggoner, 1994 ,Introduction to the Cnidarian. UCMP, Berkeley. Department of Biology ,University of Central Arkansas

10. Arai, M. N. 1996. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman and Hall, London. 300 pp.
11. Calder, D. R. 1983. Nematocysts of stages in the life cycle of Stomolophus meleagris, with keys to scyphistomae and ephyrae of some western Atlantic Scyphozoa. Can. J. Zool. 61:1185-1192.
12. Halstead, B. W. 1988. Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World. 2nd ed. Darwin Press, Princeton. 1168 pp.

13. George von Dassow; Oct. 4th 2000,  Professor at University of Washington